Convention for avoidance of double taxation treaty between Pakistan and Mauritius

KARACHI: Pakistan and Mauritius have signed a convention for the avoidance of double taxation and the prevention of fiscal evasion with respect to taxes on income on September 30, 1994.
Have agreed as follows:
Article 1
Personal Scope
This Convention shall apply to persons who are residents of one or both of the Contracting States.
Article 2
Taxes Covered
1. The taxes to which this convention shall apply are:
(a) in Pakistan
(i) the income tax;
(ii) the Super tax; and
(iii) the Surcharge;
(hereinafter referred to as “Pakistan tax”)
(b) in Mauritius,
the income tax;
(hereinafter referred to as “Mauritius tax”).
2. The Convention shall also apply to any identical or substantially similar taxes which are imposed by either contracting state after the date of signature of the present convention in addition to, or in place of, the taxes referred to in paragraph 1. The competent authorities of the contracting States shall notify each other of any substantial changes which are made in their respective taxation laws.
Article 3
General Definitions
1. In this Convention, unless the context otherwise requires:
(a) the term “Pakistan” used in the geographical sense means Pakistan as defined in the Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan and includes any area outside the territorial waters of Pakistan which under the laws of Pakistan and international law is an area within which Pakistan exercises sovereign rights and exclusive jurisdiction with respect to the natural resources of the sea bed, sub-soil and superjacent waters;
(b) the term “Mauritius” means the Republic of Mauritius and includes:
(i) all the territories and islands which, in accordance with the laws of Mauritius, constitute the State of Mauritius;
(ii) the territorial sea of Mauritius; and
(iii) any area outside the territorial sea of Mauritius which in accordance with international law has been or may hereafter be designated, under the laws of Mauritius, as an area, including the continental shelf, within which the rights of Mauritius with respect to the sea, the sea-bed and sub-soil and their natural resources may be exercised;
(c) the terms “a Contracting State” and “the other Contracting State” mean Pakistan or Mauritius as the context requires;
(d) the term “tax” means Pakistan tax or Mauritius tax, as the context requires, but shall not include any amount which is payable in respect of any default or omission in relation to the taxes to which the Convention applies or which represents a penalty imposed relating to those taxes;
(e) the term “person” includes an individual, a company, a trust and any other entity which is treated as a taxable unit under the taxation laws in force in the respective contracting States;
(f) the term “company” means any body corporate or any entity which is treated as a company or body corporate under the taxation laws in force in the respective contracting States;
(g) the terms “enterprise of a Contracting State” and “enterprise of the other Contracting State” mean respectively an enterprise carried on by a resident of a Contracting State and an enterprise carried on by a resident of the other Contracting State;
(h) the term “competent authority” means:
(i) in Pakistan, the Central Board of Revenue or its authorised representative;
(ii) in Mauritius, the Commissioner of Income Tax or his authorised representative;
(i) the term “national” means any individual possessing the nationality or citizenship of a Contracting State and any legal person, partnership or association deriving its status from the laws in force in the Contracting State;
(j) the term “international traffic” means any transport by a ship or aircraft operated by an enterprise of a Contracting State, except when the ship or aircraft is operated solely between places in the other contracting State.
2. As regards the application of the Convention by a Contracting State, any term not defined therein shall, unless the context otherwise requires, have the meaning which it has under the laws of that State concerning the taxes to which the Convention applies.
Article 4
Resident
1. For the purposes of this Convention, the term “Resident of a Contracting State” means any person who, under the laws of that State is liable to tax therein by reason of his domicile, residence, place of management or any other criterion of a similar nature.
2. Where by reason of the provisions of paragraph 1, an individual is a resident of both Contracting States, then his status shall be determined as follows:
(a) he shall be deemed to be a resident of the State in which he has a permanent home available to him; if he has a permanent home available to him in both States, he shall be deemed to be a resident of the State with which his personal and economic relations are closer (centre of vital interests);
(b) if the State in which he has his centre of vital interests cannot be determined, or if he has not a permanent home available to him in either State, he shall be deemed to be a resident of the State in which he has an habitual abode;
(c) if he has an habitual abode in both States or in neither of them he shall be deemed to be a resident of the State in which he is a national;
(d) if he is a national of both States or of neither of them, the competent authorities of the Contracting States shall settle the question by mutual agreement.
3. Where by reason of the provisions of paragraph 1, a person other than an individual is a resident of both Contracting States, then it shall be deemed to be a resident of the State in which its place of effective management is situated.
Article 5
Permanent Establishment
1. For the purposes of this Convention, the term “permanent establishment” means a fixed place of business through which the business of the enterprise is wholly or partly carried on.
2. The term “permanent establishment” includes especially
(a) a place of management
(b) a branch;
(c) an office;
(d) a factory
(e) a workshop;
(f) a warehouse;
(g) a mine, an oil or gas well, a quarry or any other place of extraction of natural resources;
(h) a building site or construction or assembly project or supervisory activities connected therewith, but only where such site or project or activity continues for a period or periods of more than six months in any twelve month period.
3. Notwithstanding the preceding provisions of this article, the term “permanent establishment” shall be deemed not to include:
(a) the use of facilities solely for the purpose of storage or display of goods or merchandise belonging to the enterprise;
(b) the maintenance of a stock of goods or merchandise belonging to the enterprise solely for the purpose of storage or display;
(c) the maintenance of a stock of goods or merchandise belonging to the enterprise solely for the purpose of processing by another enterprise;
(d) the maintenance of a fixed place of business solely for the purpose of purchasing goods or merchandise, or of collecting information, for the enterprise;
(e) the maintenance of a fixed place of business solely for the purpose of carrying on, for the enterprise, any other activity of a preparatory or auxiliary character, including advertising, supply of information and scientific research.
4. Notwithstanding the provisions of paragraphs 1 and 2, where a person other than an agent of an independent status to whom paragraph 5 applies is acting in a Contracting State on behalf of an enterprise of the other Contracting State, that enterprise shall be deemed to have a permanent establishment in the first mentioned Contracting State in respect of any activities which that person undertakes for the enterprise, if such a person:
(a) has and habitually exercises in that State an authority to conclude contracts in the name of the enterprise, unless the activities of such person are limited to those mentioned in paragraph 3 which, if exercised through a fixed place of business would not make this fixed place of business a permanent establishment under the provisions of that paragraph, or
(b) has no such authority, but habitually maintains in the first mentioned State, a stock of goods or merchandise from which he regularly delivers goods or merchandise on behalf of the enterprise.
5. An enterprise of a contracting State shall not be deemed to have a permanent establishment in the other Contracting State merely because it carries on business in that other State through a broker, general commission agent or any other agent of an independent status provided that such persons are acting in the ordinary course of their business. However, when the activities of such an agent are devoted wholly or almost wholly on behalf of that enterprise, he will not be considered an agent of an independent status within the meaning of this paragraph.
6. The fact that a company which is a resident of a Contracting State controls or is controlled by a company which is a resident of the other Contracting State, or which carries on business in that other Contracting State (whether through a permanent establishment or otherwise), shall not of itself constitute either company a permanent establishment of the other.
Article 6
Income From Immovable Property
1. Income derived by a resident of a Contracting State from immovable property (including income from agriculture or forestry) situated in the other Contracting State may be taxed in that other State.
2. The term “immovable property” shall have the meaning which it has under the laws of the Contracting State in which the property in question is situated. The term shall in any case include property accessory to immovable property, livestock and equipment used in agriculture and forestry, rights to which the provisions of general law respecting landed property apply, usufruct of immovable property and rights to variable or fixed payments as consideration for the working of, or the right to work, mineral deposits, sources and other natural resources. Ships, boats and aircraft shall not be regarded as immovable property.
3. The provisions of paragraph 1 shall also apply to income derived from the direct use, letting, or use in any other form of immovable property.
4. The provisions of paragraphs 1 and 3 shall also apply to the income from immovable property of an enterprise and to income from immovable property used for the performance of independent personal services.
Article 7
Business Profits
1. The profits of an enterprise of a Contracting State shall be taxable only in that State unless the enterprise carries on business in the other Contracting State through a permanent establishment situated therein. If the enterprise carries on business as aforesaid, the profits of the enterprise may be taxed in the other State but only so much of them as is attributable to that permanent establishment.
2. Subject to the provisions of paragraph 3, where an enterprise of a Contracting State carries on business in the other Contracting State through a permanent establishment situated therein, there shall in each Contracting State be attributed to that permanent establishment the profits which it might be expected to make if it were a distinct and separate enterprise engaged in the same or similar activities under the same or similar conditions and dealing wholly independently with the enterprise of which it is a permanent establishment.
3. In the determination of the profits of a permanent establishment, there shall be allowed as deductions expenses which are incurred for the purpose of the permanent establishment including only those executive and general administrative expenses so incurred, whether in the State in which the permanent establishment is situated or elsewhere, which are allowed under the provisions of the domestic law of the Contracting State in which the permanent establishment is situated. However, no such deduction shall be allowed in respect of amounts, if any, paid (otherwise than towards reimbursement of actual expenses) by the permanent establishment to the head office of the enterprise or any of its other offices, by way of royalties, fees or other similar payments in return for the use of patents or other rights, or by way of commission for specific services performed or for management, or, except in the case of a banking enterprise, by way of interest on moneys lent to the permanent establishment. Likewise no account shall be taken, in determining the profits of a permanent establishment, of amounts charged (otherwise than towards reimbursement of actual expenses), by the permanent establishment to the head office of the enterprise or any of its other offices, by way of royalties, fees or other similar payments in return for the use of patents or other rights, or by way of commission for specific services performed or for management, or, except in the case of a banking enterprise, by way of interest on moneys lent to the head office of the enterprise or any of its other offices.
4. In so far as it has been customary in a Contracting State to determine the profits to be attributed to a permanent establishment on the basis of an apportionment of the total profits of the enterprise to its various parts, nothing in paragraph 2 shall preclude that Contracting State from determining the profits to be taxed by such an apportionment as may be customary, the method of apportionment adopted shall, however, be such that the result shall be in accordance with the principles contained in this article.
5. No profits shall be attributed to a permanent establishment by reason of the mere purchase by that permanent establishment of goods or merchandise for the enterprise.
6. For the purpose of the preceding paragraphs, the profits to be attributed to the permanent establishment shall be determined by the same method year by year unless there is good and sufficient reason to the contrary.
7. Where profits include items of income which are dealt with separately in other articles of this Convention, then the provisions of those articles shall not be affected by the provisions of this article.
Article 8
Shipping and Air Transport
1. Profits of an enterprise of a Contracting State from the operation of ships or aircraft in international traffic shall be taxable only in that State.
2. The provisions of paragraph 1 shall also apply to profits from participation in a pool, a joint business or an international operating agency.
3. The term “operation of ships or aircraft” shall mean business of transportation by sea or air of passengers, mail, livestock or goods carried on by the owners or lessees or charterers of ships or aircraft, including the sale of tickets for such transportation on behalf of other enterprises, the incidental lease of ships or aircraft and any other activity directly connected with such transportation.
Article 9
Associated Enterprises
1. Where:
(a) an enterprise of a Contracting State participates directly or indirectly in the management, control or capital of an enterprise of the other Contracting State, or
(b) the same persons participate directly or indirectly in the management, control or capital of an enterprise of a Contracting State and an enterprise of the other Contracting State,
and in either case conditions are made or imposed between the two enterprises in their commercial or financial relations which differ from those which would be made between independent enterprises, then any profits which would, but for those conditions, have accrued to one of the enterprises, but, by reason of those conditions, have not so accrued, may be included in the profits of that enterprise and taxed accordingly.
2. Where a Contracting State includes in the profits of an enterprise of that State and taxes accordingly profits on which an enterprise of the other Contracting State has been charged to tax in that other State and the profits so included are profits which would have accrued to the enterprises of the first mentioned State if the conditions made between the two enterprises had been those which would have been made between independent enterprises, then that other State shall make an appropriate adjustment to the amount of the tax charged herein on those profits. In determining such adjustment, due regard shall be had to the other provisions of this Convention and the competent authorities of the Contracting States shall if necessary consult each other.
Article 10
Dividends
1. Dividends paid by a company which is resident of a Contracting State to a resident of the other Contracting State may be taxed in that other State.
2. However, such dividends may also be taxed in the Contracting State of which the company paying the dividends is a resident and according to the laws of that State, but if the recipient is the beneficial owner of the dividends, the tax so charged shall not exceed 10% of the gross amount of dividends.
This paragraph shall not affect the taxation of the company in respect of the profits out of which the dividends are paid.
3. The term “dividends” as used in this article means income from shares or other rights, not being debt-claims, participating in profits, as well as income from other corporate rights which is subjected to the same taxation treatment as income from shares by the laws of the State of which the company making the distribution is a resident.
4. The provisions of paragraphs 1 and 2 shall not apply if the beneficial owner of the dividends, being a resident of a Contracting State, carries on business in the other contracting State of which the company paying the dividends is a resident, through a permanent establishment situated therein or performs in that other State independent personal services from a fixed base situated therein, and the holding in respect of which the dividends are paid is effectively connected with such permanent establishment or fixed base. In such case, the provisions of article 7, or article 14, as the case may be, shall apply.
5. Where a company which is a resident of a Contracting State derives profits or income from the other Contracting State, that other State may not impose any tax on the dividends paid by the company except in so far as such dividends are paid to a resident of that other State or in so far as the holding in respect of which the dividends are paid is effectively connected with a permanent establishment or a fixed base situated in that other State, nor subject the company’s undistributed profits to a tax on the company’s undistributed profits, even if the dividends paid or the undistributed profits consist wholly or partly of profits or income arising in such other State.
Article 11
Interest
1. Interest arising in a Contracting State and paid to a resident of the other Contracting State may be taxed in that other State.
2. However, such interest may also be taxed in the Contracting State in which it arises and according to the laws of that State, but if the recipient is the beneficial owner of the interest the tax so charged shall not exceed 10% of the gross amount of the interest.
3. Notwithstanding the provisions of paragraph 2, interest arising in a Contracting State shall be exempt from tax in that State provided it is derived and beneficially owned by:
(i) the Government, a political sub-division or a local authority of the other Contracting State; or
(ii) the Central Bank of the other Contracting State; or
(iii) such agency or instrumentality of the Government of the other Contracting State as may be agreed in writing between the competent authorities of both Contracting States.
4. The term “interest” as used in this article means income from debt-claims of every kind, whether or not secured by mortgage and whether or not carrying a right to participate in the debtor’s profits, and in particular income from government securities and income from bonds or debentures, including premiums and prizes attaching to such securities, bonds or debentures. Penalty charges for late payment shall not be regarded as interest for the purpose of this article.
5. The provisions of paragraph 1 and 2 shall not apply if the beneficial owner of the interest, being a resident of a Contracting State, carries on business in the other Contracting State in which the interest arises, through a permanent establishment situated therein, or performs in that other State independent personal services from a fixed base situated therein, and the debt-claim in respect of which the interest is paid is effectively connected with such permanent establishment or fixed base. In such case, the provisions of article 7 or article 14, as the case may be, shall apply.
6. Interest shall be deemed to arise in a Contracting State when the payer is that Contracting State itself, a political sub-division, a local authority or a resident of that State, where, however, the person paying the interest, whether he is a resident of a Contracting State or not, has in a Contracting State a permanent establishment or a fixed base in connection with which the indebtedness on which the interest is paid was incurred, and such interest is borne by such permanent establishment or fixed based, then such interest shall be deemed to arise in the Contracting State in which the permanent establishment or fixed base is situated.
7. Where, by reason of a special relationship between the payer and the beneficial owner or between both of them and some other person, the amount of the interest, having regard to the debt-claim for which it is paid, exceeds the amount which would have been agreed upon by the payer and the beneficial owner in the absence of such relationship, the provisions of this article shall apply to the last mentioned amount. In such case, the excess part of the payments shall remain taxable according to the laws of each Contracting State, due regard being had to the other provisions of this Convention.
Article 12
Royalties
1. Royalties arising in a Contracting State and paid to a resident of the other Contracting State may be taxed in that other State.
2. However, such royalties may also be taxed in the Contracting State in which they arise and according to the laws of that State, but if the recipient is the beneficial owner of the royalties, the tax so charged shall not exceed 12.5% of the gross amount of the royalties.
3. The term “royalties” as used in this article means payments of any kind received as a consideration for the use of, or the right to use, any copyright of literary, artistic or scientific work, including cinematograph films and films, tapes or discs used for radio or television broadcasting, any patent, trade mark, design or model, computer software, plan, secret formula or process, or for the use of, or the right to use, industrial, commercial or scientific equipment, or for information concerning industrial, commercial or scientific experience.
4. The provisions of paragraphs 1 and 2 shall not apply if the beneficial owner of the royalties, being a resident of a Contracting State, carries on business in the other Contracting State in which the royalties arise through a permanent establishment situated therein, or performs in that other State independent personal services from a fixed base situated therein, and the right or property in respect of which the royalties are paid is effectively connected with such permanent establishment or fixed base. In such case, the provisions of article 7 or article 14, as the case may be, shall apply.
5. Royalties shall be deemed to arise in a Contracting State when the payer is that State itself, a political subdivision, a local authority or a resident of that State. Where, however, the person paying the royalties, whether he is a resident of a Contracting State or not, has in a Contracting State a permanent establishment or a fixed base in connection with which the liability to pay the royalties was incurred, and such royalties are borne by such permanent establishment or fixed base, then such royalties shall be deemed to arise in the State in which the permanent establishment or fixed base is situated.
6. Where, by reason of special relationship between the payer and the beneficial owner or between both of them and some other person, the amount of royalties, having regard to the use, right or information for which they are paid, exceeds the amount which would have been agreed upon by the payer and the beneficial owner in the absence of such relationship, the provisions of this article shall apply only to the last-mentioned amount. In such case, the excess part of the payment shall remain taxable according to the laws of such Contracting State, due regard being had to the other provisions of this Convention.
Article 13
Capital Gains
1. Gains derived by a resident of a Contracting State from the alienation of immovable property, referred to in article 6, and situated in the other Contracting State may be taxed in that other State.
2. Gains from the alienation of movable property forming part of the business property of a permanent establishment which an enterprise of a Contracting State has in the other Contracting State or of movable property pertaining to a fixed base available to a resident of a Contracting State in the other Contracting State for the purposes of performing independent personal services, including such gains from the alienation of such a permanent establishment (alone or together with the whole enterprise) or of such fixed base, may be taxed in that other State.
3. Gains from the alienation of ships or aircraft operated in international traffic or movable property pertaining to the operation of such ships or aircraft shall be taxable only in the Contracting State of which the alienator is a resident.
4. Gains from the alienation of any property other than that mentioned in paragraphs 1, 2 and 3 shall be taxable only in the Contracting State of which the alienator is a resident.
Article 14
Independent Personal Services
1. Income derived by a resident of a Contracting State in respect of professional services or other independent activities of a similar character shall be taxable only in that State except in the following circumstances when such income may also be taxed in the other Contracting State:
(a) if he has a fixed base regularly available to him in the other Contracting State for the purpose of performing his activities in that case, only so much of the income as is attributable to that fixed base may be taxed in that other Contracting State; or
(b) if his stay in the other Contracting State is for a period or periods amounting to or exceeding in the aggregate 183 days in the relevant “previous year” or “year of income”, as the case may be; in that case, only so much of the income as is derived from his activities performed in that other State may be taxed in that other State; or
(c) if the remuneration for his activities in the other Contracting State is paid by a resident of that Contracting State or is borne by a permanent establishment or a fixed base situated in that Contracting State; in that case only so much of the remuneration as is derived therefrom may be taxed in that other Contracting State.
2. The term “professional services” includes independent scientific, literary, artistic, educational or teaching activities, as well as the independent activities of physicians, surgeons, dentists, lawyers, engineers, architects, and accountants.
Article 15
Dependent Personal Services
1. Subject to the provisions of articles 16, 17, 18, 19, 20 and 21, salaries, wages and other similar remuneration derived by a resident of a Contracting State in respect of an employment shall be taxable only in that State unless the employment is exercised in the other Contracting State. If the employment is so exercised, such remuneration as is derived therefrom may be taxed in that other State.
2. Notwithstanding the provisions of paragraph 1, remuneration derived by a resident of a Contracting State in respect of an employment exercised in the other Contracting State shall be taxable only in the first mentioned State if:
(a) the recipient is present in the other State for a period or periods not exceeding in the aggregate 183 days in the relevant “previous year” or “year of income”, as the case may be; and
(b) the remuneration is paid by, or on behalf of, an employer who is not a resident of the other State; and
(c) the remuneration is not borne by a permanent establishment or a fixed base which the employer has in the other State.
3. Notwithstanding the preceding provisions of this article, remuneration derived in respect of an employment exercised aboard a ship or aircraft operated in international traffic by an enterprise of a Contracting State shall be taxable only in that State.
Article 16
Directors’ Fees
1. Directors’ fees and similar payments derived by a resident of a Contracting State in his capacity as a member of the Board of Directors of a company which is a resident of the other Contracting State may be taxed in that other State.
2. Salaries, wages and other similar remuneration derived by a resident of a Contracting State in his capacity as an official in a top-level managerial position of a company which is a resident of the other Contracting State may be taxed in that other Contracting State.
Article 17
Artistes and Sportsmen
1. Notwithstanding the provisions of articles 14 and 15 income derived by a resident of a Contracting State as an entertainer such as a theatre, motion picture, radio or television artiste or a musician or as a sportsman, from his personal activities as such exercised in the other Contracting State may be taxed in that other State.
2. Where income in respect of personal activities exercised by an entertainer or a sportsman in his capacity as such accrues not to the entertainer or a sportsman himself but to another person, that income may, notwithstanding the provisions of article 7, 14 and 15 be taxed in the Contracting State in which the activities of the entertainer or sportsman are exercised.
3. Notwithstanding the provisions of paragraph 1, income derived by an entertainer or a sportsman who is a resident of a Contracting State from his personal activities as such exercised in the other Contracting State, shall be taxable only in the first-mentioned Contracting State, if the activities in the other Contracting State are supported wholly or substantially from the public funds of the first-mentioned Contracting State, including any of its political sub-divisions or local authorities.
Article 18
Government Service
1. (a) Remuneration, other than a pension, paid by a Contracting State or a political sub-division or a local authority thereof to an individual in respect of services rendered to that State or sub-division or authority shall be taxable only in that State.
(b) However, such remuneration shall be taxable only in the other Contracting State if the services are rendered in that other State and the individual is a resident of that State who:
(i) is a national of that State; or
(ii) did not become a resident of that State solely for the purpose of rendering the services.
2. (a) Any pension paid by, or out of funds created by a Contracting State or a political sub-division or a local authority thereof to an individual in respect of services rendered to that State or sub-division or authority thereof shall be taxable only in that State.
(b) However, such pension shall be taxable only in the other Contracting State if the individual is a resident of, and a national of that other State.
3. The provisions of articles 15, 16 and 19 shall apply to remuneration and pensions in respect of services rendered in connection with a business carried on by a Contracting State or a political sub-division or a local authority thereof.
Article 19
Non-Government Pensions and Annuities
1. Any pension, other than a pension referred to in article 18 or any annuity derived by a resident of a Contracting State from sources within the other Contracting State may be taxed only in the first-mentioned Contracting State.
2. The term “pension” means a periodic payment made in consideration of past services or by way of compensation for injuries received in the course of performance of service.
3. The term “annuity” means a stated sum payable periodically at stated times during life or during a specified or ascertainable period of time, under an obligation to make the payments in return for adequate and full consideration in money or money’s worth.
4. Notwithstanding the provisions of paragraph 1, pensions paid and other payments made under a public scheme which is part of the social security system of a Contracting State or a political sub-division, or a local authority thereof shall be taxable only in that State.
Article 20
Students and Apprentices
1. A student or business apprentice who is or was a resident of one of the Contracting States immediately before visiting the other Contracting State and who is present in that other State solely for the purpose of his education or training, shall be exempt from tax in that other State on:
(a) payments made to him by persons residing outside that other State for the purposes of his maintenance, education or training; and
(b) remuneration from employment in that other State, in an amount not exceeding US $ 1500 or its equivalent in Pakistan or Mauritius currency during any “previous year”, or such amount as may be agreed from time to time between the competent authorities, provided that such employment is directly related to his studies or is undertaken for the purpose of his maintenance.
2. The benefits of this article shall extend only for such period or time as may be reasonable or academically or customarily required to complete the education or training undertaken, but in no event shall any individual have the benefits of this article for more than five consecutive years from the date of his first arrival in that other Contracting State.
Article 21
Professors and Teachers
1. A professor or teacher who is or was a resident of one of the Contracting States immediately before visiting the other Contracting State for the purpose of teaching or engaging in research, or both, at a university, college, school or other recognised or approved institution in that other Contracting State shall be exempt from tax in that other State on any remuneration for such teaching or research for a period not exceeding thirty six months from the date of his arrival in that other State.
2. This article shall not apply to income from research if such research is undertaken primarily for the private benefit of a specific person or persons.
3. For the purpose of this article and article 20, an individual shall be deemed to be a resident of a Contracting State if he is resident in that Contracting State in the year immediately preceding that in which he first visits the other Contracting State.
4. For the purpose of paragraph 1, “approved institution” means an institution which has been approved in this regard by the competent authority of the concerned Contracting State.
Article 22
Other Income
1. Subject to the provisions of paragraph 2, items of income of a resident of a Contracting State, wherever arising, which are not expressly dealt with in the foregoing articles of this Convention shall be taxable only in that Contracting State.
2. The provisions of paragraph 1 shall not apply to income, other than income from immovable property as defined in paragraph 2 of article 6, if the recipient of such income, being a resident of a Contracting State, carries on business in the other Contracting State through a permanent establishment situated therein, or performs in that other State independent personal services from a fixed base situated therein, and the right or property in respect of which the income is paid is effectively connected with such permanent establishment or fixed base. In such case, the provisions of article 7 or article 14 as the case may, shall apply.
3. Notwithstanding the provisions of paragraph 1 and 2, items of income of a resident of a Contracting State not dealt with in the foregoing Articles of this Convention and arising in the other Contracting State may be taxed in that other State.
Article 23
Method for Elimination of Double Taxation
1. The laws in force in either of the Contracting States shall continue to govern the taxation of income in the respective States except where provisions to the contrary are made in this Convention. Where income is subject to tax in both States, relief from double taxation shall be given in accordance with the next paragraphs of this Article.
2. In the case of Pakistan, subject to the provisions of the laws of Pakistan regarding the allowance as a credit against Pakistan tax, the amount of Mauritius tax payable under the laws of Mauritius and in accordance with the provisions of this Convention whether directly or by deduction by a resident of Pakistan in respect of income from sources within Mauritius which has been subjected to tax both in Pakistan and Mauritius, shall be allowed as a credit against the Pakistan tax payable in respect of such income but in an amount not exceeding that proportion of Pakistan tax which such income bears to the entire income chargeable to Pakistan tax.
3. In the case of Mauritius,
(a) where a resident of Mauritius derives income from Pakistan, the amount of tax on that income payable in Pakistan in accordance with the provisions of this Convention may be credited against the Mauritius tax imposed on that resident. The amount of credit, however, shall not exceed the amount of the Mauritius tax on that income computed in accordance with the taxation laws and regulations of Mauritius.
(b) where the income derived from Pakistan is a dividend paid by a company which is a resident of Pakistan to a company which is a resident of Mauritius, the credit shall take into account the tax paid in Pakistan by the company paying the dividend in respect of the profits out of which the dividend is paid.
4. The tax paid in a Contracting State mentioned in paragraphs 2 and 3 of this Article, shall be deemed to include the tax which would have been payable but for the legal provisions concerning tax reduction, exemption or other tax incentives of the Contracting States, for the promotion of economic development.
Article 24
Non-Discrimination
1. The nationals of a Contracting State shall not be subjected in the other Contracting State to any taxation or any requirement connected therewith which is other or more burdensome than the taxation and connected requirements to which nationals of that other State in the same circumstances are or may be subjected.
2. The taxation on a permanent establishment which an enterprise of a Contracting State has in the other Contracting State shall not be less favourably levied in that other State than the taxation levied on enterprises of that other State carrying on the same activities in the same circumstances.
3. Enterprises of a Contracting State, the capital of which is wholly or partly owned or controlled, directly or indirectly, by one or more residents of the other Contracting State, shall not be subjected in the first-mentioned Contracting State to any taxation or any requirement connected therewith which is other or more burdensome than the taxation and connected requirements to which other similar enterprises of that first-mentioned State are or may be subjected in the same circumstances.
4. Nothing contained in the preceding paragraphs of this Article shall be construed as obliging either of the Contracting States to grant to persons not resident in its territory those personal allowances, reductions and reliefs for tax purposes which are by law available only to persons who are so resident.
5. In this Article, the term “taxation” means taxes which are the subject of this Convention.
Article 25
Mutual Agreement Procedure
1. Where a resident of a Contracting State considers that the actions of one or both of the Contracting States results or will result for him in taxation not in accordance with this Convention, he may, notwithstanding the remedies provided by the national laws of those States, present his case to the competent authority of the Contracting State of which he is a resident or, if his case comes under paragraph 1 of article 24, to that of the Contracting State of which he is a national. The case must be presented within three years of the date of receipt of notice of the action which gives rise to taxation not in accordance with the Convention.
2. The competent authority shall endeavour, if the objection appears to it to be justified and if it is not itself able to arrive at an appropriate solution, to resolve the case by mutual agreement with the competent authority of the other Contracting State, with a view to the avoidance of taxation not in accordance with the Convention. Any agreement reached shall be implemented notwithstanding any time limits in the domestic laws of the Contracting States.
3. The competent authorities of the Contracting States shall endeavour to resolve by mutual agreement any difficulties or doubts arising as to the interpretation or application of the Convention. They may also consult together for the elimination of double taxation in cases not provided for in the Convention.
4. The competent authorities of the Contracting States may communicate with each other directly for the purpose of reaching an agreement in the sense of the preceding paragraphs. When it seems advisable in order to reach agreement to have an oral exchange of opinions, such exchange may take place through a commission consisting of representatives of the competent authorities of the Contracting States.
Article 26
Exchange of Information
1. The competent authorities of the Contracting States shall exchange such information (including documents) as is necessary for carrying out the provisions of the Convention or of the domestic laws of the Contracting States concerning taxes covered by the Convention, in so far as the taxation thereunder is not contrary to the Convention, in particular for the prevention of fraud or evasion of such taxes. The exchange of information is not restricted by article 1. Any information received by a Contracting State shall be treated as secret in the same manner as information obtained under the domestic laws of that State. However, if the information is originally regarded as secret in the transmitting State, it shall be disclosed only to persons or authorities (including courts and administrative bodies) involved in the assessment or collection of, the enforcement or prosecution in respect of, or the determination of appeals in relation to, the taxes which are the subject of the Convention. Such persons or authorities shall use the information only for such purposes but may, disclose the information in public court proceedings or in judicial decisions. The competent authorities shall, through consultations, develop appropriate conditions, methods and techniques concerning the matters in respect of which such exchange of information shall be made, including where appropriate, exchange of information regarding tax avoidance.
2. The exchange of information or documents shall be either on a routine basis or on request with reference to particular cases or both. The competent authorities of the Contracting States shall agree from time to time on the list of the information or documents which shall be furnished on a routine basis.
3. In no case shall the provisions of paragraph 1 be construed so as to impose on a Contracting State the obligation:
(a) to carry out administrative measures at variance with the laws or administrative practice of that or of the other Contracting State;
(b) to supply information or documents which are not obtainable under the laws or in the normal course of the administration of that or of the other Contracting State;
(c) to supply information or documents which would disclose any trade, business, industrial, commercial or professional secret or trade process or information the disclosure of which would be contrary to public policy.
Article 27
Diplomatic Agents and Consular Officers
Nothing in this Convention shall affect the fiscal privileges of diplomatic agents or consular officers under the general rules of international law or under the provisions of special agreements.
Article 28
Entry Into Force
Each of the Contracting States shall notify to the other the completion of the procedures required by its law for the bringing into force of this Convention. The Convention shall enter into force on the date of the later of these notifications and shall thereupon have effect in both Contracting States in respect of taxes on income for the year of assessment beginning on or after the 1st day of July in the calendar year next following that in which the Convention enters into force.
Article 29
Termination
This Convention shall remain in force indefinitely but either of the Contracting States may, on or before the thirtieth day of June in any calendar year beginning after the expiration of a period of five years from the date of its entry into force, give the other Contracting State through diplomatic channels, written notice of termination and, in such ever, this Convention shall cease to have effect in respect of income for any year of assessment beginning on or after the 1st day of July next following the calendar year in which the notice is given.

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